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Travels in Buddhist Temples

Though primarily a specialist in Himalayan architecture, Ron frequently documented other aspects of the built environment, including murals, sculptures, and ritual items. And truth be told, it would be difficult to convey the meaning and significance of these spaces without these interior components. For the practitioner–and often, scholar–what is found inside generates and communicates the site’s significance. But truth be told, many times visitors–again, practitioners and scholars alike–at a particular shrine go through rote movements and actions, and perhaps spend less time absorbing the full amount of information available to them.

The main image of the main shrine, such as the Shakyamuni Buddha shown below, generally are the recipients of ritual action; as they tend to be the largest figures in the space, prostrations are made before them, offerings are given to them and they are most often the figures to which prayers are directed. Yet when we study the murals behind Shakyamuni, we see that there is a predominance of deities primarily associated with the Gelug tradition of Himalayan Buddhism. This information then lets us know–without necessarily seeing the rest of the site or even, in this case, the shrine room as a whole–that this temple’s imagery indicates a strong Gelug presence and patronage at the time the shrine was created.

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Main shrine image of seated Shakyamuni Buddha, Thikse Monastery, Ladakh, slide dated July 1980. Behind the main image are murals showing deities primarily associated with the Gelug (Geluk) tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. In particular, Shinje (Vajrabhairava), Gonkar Yizhin Norbu (Cintamani Mahakala), Damcan Dorje Legpa (Vajrasadhu), and Gurgi Gonpo (Panjarnatha Mahakala). Bernier Archive #vrc_20150618_182.jpg.

Mural compositions also reveal cycles of ritual practice, often including not only lineage masters but also retinue figures whose presence embodies a particular aspect of that practice. Specifically, the retinue figures provide additional support for a practitioner’s realization of the main figure(s) that are the ultimate goal of the ritual. Examples of these supporting figures can be identified in the below mural from Aloobari as those shown without a partner or consort and having animal heads. Visible directly above are higher level meditational deities, shown here with multiple arms, legs, and heads and embracing their consorts. Of course, while some of the imagery focuses on advanced and subtle practices; other portions of the composition address everyday needs and concerns of the practitioner. At Aloobari, we see in the lower left the image of the ‘5 Long Life Goddesses’ (Tshering Che Nga), also referred to as Tsheringma and her sisters. She and her cohort are propitiated almost exclusively for long life and healing.  (For more on the Tshering Che Nga, follow this link to the topic on Himalayan Art Resources.)

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Mural paintings of meditational deities, lineage figures, and long life deities, second floor, Aloobari Monastery, July 1980 Bernier Archive #vrc_20150618_294.jpg

Some compositions depict ritual practices in mandala form, wherein each component figure of a specific cycle is arranged in a geometric pattern as delineated by a textual or other authority, as seen in the composition below from Alchi Monastery:

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Mural of Buddhas and mandalas, Alchi Monastery, Ladakh, August 1983. Bernier Archive # vrc_20150618_232.jpg

The temple environment is not just paintings and sculptures, however. Ron’s slides also capture elaborate ritual elements and offerings that are key components of Himalayan Buddhist practices. Below is a large torma dedicated to the deity Palden Lhamo (Shri Devi) displayed on the shrine at Tashilhunpo in Tibet. The uppermost portion shows the figure of Palden Lhamo atop her horse, and below the break are the Seven Precious Substances and the Eight Auspicious Signs. (Follow the respective links for more information.) Torma can be crafted out of barley or other grains in more simple forms, like the cream-colored form on the far lower right of the slide, or more elaborate ones that are decorated with colored butter.

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Torma at Tashilhunpo Monastery, Shigatse, Tibet, slide dated September 1968. Bernier Archive #vrc_20150205_180.jpg

Additional sculptures are of deities who provide protection for a sacred space, for a particular lineage tradition, or for a local community.  While some of these figures are associated only with a specific village, others, such as Dorje Legpa below, have had an affiliation with an entire tradition of Himalayan Buddhism. Dorje Legpa is a controversial figure/topic in modern Tibetan Buddhism for reasons that go beyond the scope of this blog, however, it is worth noticing the fringed material hanging over Dorje Legpa’s eyes. Many practitioners describe such a covering as being necessary to help keep the protector’s power intact; the mediating fringe keeps the deity from seeing anything offensive while also ensuring his intense gaze does not impact or harm people in the temple.

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Sculpture of controversial deity Dorje Shugden, perhaps from Phyang Monastery, Ladakh, July 1980. Bernier Archive #vrc_20150618_215.jpg

Personally, the image below is among my favorites out of the 1,000 that have been scanned so far. Slightly blurry and affected by hotspots from the camera flash, it isn’t one of the best photos from a technical perspective, but in it we can see the wall murals and their accompanying inscriptions that line the upper level of the shrine. We see thangkas (rolled paintings) of forms of Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava), the sculpture of Chenrezig (Avalokiteshvara) covered in khataks (white silk scarves) standing before offerings of incense, flowers and butter lamps, the ritual drums and texts laid out before the shrine, and the somewhat self-conscious smile of a resident monk. To me, this image encapsulates the richness of a temple environment, the grand scale of some of its imagery, its complexity, and the multilayered symbolisms and meanings present in the shrine, captured as it was in 1979 by a dedicated scholar of Himalayan visual culture.

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Interior of Nyingma tradition monastery, Ladakh, August 1979. Bernier archive #vrc_20150618_158

 

 

Dr. Ariana Maki

s200_ariana.makiAriana Maki’s Ph.D. is in Buddhist art history, with additional concentrations in the fields of Himalayan art, and Islamic art and architecture. She has been undertaking research in Asia since 2000, and lived in the Himalayan nation of Bhutan for three years (2009-2012).  Ariana has traveled extensively in Nepal, Tibet, and India, which, along with Bhutan, are countries well-represented in the Bernier archive. In addition, Ariana has spent substantive time in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma), China, Japan, and Morocco. This overseas experience, coupled with her scholarly background, provide her the tools to contribute effectively to the Bernier project.

Funding Sources: Artstor At-Risk Collections grant

Generous support has been provided through the Artstor At-Risk collection grant.  It was awarded to digitize and publish Buddhist initiation rituals in Nepal in the 1970’s and 80’s and key historical sites from Myanmar.

This scholarship and image archive will be made possible and available for scholars, enthusiasts and students through Artstor digital library and Artstor is also providing use of its Shared Shelf digital media management software to support the cataloging of these collections.

Dianne and Ronald M. Bernier Archive: Introduction

The Visual Resources Center (VRC) in the department of Art and Art History was gifted over 30,000 slides documenting of 40 years of research and scholarship of the late Dr. Ronald M. Bernier, former CU Professor. This collection comprises images of the arts and architecture, along with geography, peoples and places of the Himalaya region, India, Southeast Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Oceania and Africa. Dr. Bernier’s primary focus of research and documentation represents the Himalaya region, India and Southeast Asia.

Some of the earliest images, dated to the mid-1960’s, document a time at which the remote Himalayan locations received very few outside (western) visitors. Dr. Bernier cultivated meaningful relationships with the monastic and lay communities and was granted permission to many temples and monasteries. His study and documentation of such places proves invaluable to scholarship in this era of acute awareness of illegal theft and sale, religious based destruction, natural erosion and unsustainable tourism of places, arts and artifacts around the world. In short, the archive is a comprehensive documentation of at risk places, arts and artifacts.

My name is Krystle Kelley, I am a Graduate Assistant (Art History M.A. candidate) in the VRC at CU Boulder. I received by B.A. from CU Boulder and took any and all of Dr. Bernier’s classes that I could enroll into. I am currently working on researching and cataloging the digital archive of the Bernier Archive. My supervisor, Elaine Paul, Director of the VRC and Lia Pileggi, Digital Imaging and Technology Coordinator, supervise the process. Dr. Ariana Maki, specialist in Buddhist art and iconography, with minor concentrations in Himalayan art and Islamic art and architecture, is the lead scholar for the project.

The intent of this blog is to provide an informative framework for anyone in the field of digital archives and cataloging that may be facing the same task, to expound on the scholarship surrounding at risk collections and non-Western arts and provide a window into the project for all interested scholars, students, amateur art enthusiasts and friends of digital archives.

Please feel free to comment on any post or reach out to me with any questions or information you would like to contribute. We expect this to be an open and collaborative blog.

We hope you enjoy the content and find it useful.